Glossary – G

Galvanic cell: An electrochemical cell for which the cell reaction as written is spontaneous. It thus produces electricity as a result.

Gas Constant (R): Having a numerical value equal to 8.314 kJmol-1K-1, the gas constant is effectively a molarheat capacity.

Gauche: Where non eclipsed groups with lone pairs are not unaligned, but trans.

Gibb’s Free Energy: A thermodynamic state function, represented by G. The free energy is related to enthalpy and entropy by the equation: ΔG = ΔH – TΔS

Gibbs Energy of Reaction: (Reaction Gibbs Energy) The partial derivative of the Gibbs energy with respect to the extent of reaction.

Grignard Reagent: An organometallic compound with magnesium bonded to carbon.

Gross Selection Rule: A rule which specifies the general features that a molecule must have if it is to produce a particular type of spectrum.

Ground State: The lowest energy configuration of a system.

Group: Fairly arbitrary term referring to any part of a molecule – could be alkyl group, carbonyl group, functional group etc. etc.