Energies of Nuclei in Magnetic Fields

The nuclear magnetic moment of a nucleus is denoted μ, and the component of this magnetic moment on the z axis, μz, is proportional to the component of the nuclear magnetic moment along this axis, mI. We thus write: where γ is called the magnetogyric ratio of the particular nucleus under consideration, an empirically determined … Read more

Spin Angular Momentum

Spin angular momentum is a specific type of angular momentum possessed by some nuclei. As such, it obeys all the relations given for angular momentum under the quantum mechanics of rotation, here. i.e. there are two quantum numbers associated with the spin angular momentum momentum that determine its properties. All nuclei have a spin quantum … Read more


Decalins are the most important members of  group of molecules called fused rings.  The name, as it might suggest, applies to molecules which have two adjacent rings, which have two atoms in common.  Decalins are two fused cyclohexane rings, and can occur in two isomers: cis and trans: The forms get their names from the relative position of the two … Read more

Nitrogen Oxides

All nitrogen oxides are thermodynamically unstable with respect to decomposition to N2 and O2, but they are kinetically stable, ie. the rate of decomposition is very slow. All the oxides contain Npπ-Opπ bonding. Nitrous Oxide/Dinitrogen oxide (N2O): The oxidation state of N is +1, and this compound is a colourless gas and chemically inert. isoelectronic with CO2 and N3–. The N-N bond order is … Read more


The Direction of Spontaneous Reactions The Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy Entropy and Volume The Clausius Relation Entropy of Phase Changes The Relationship between Entropy and Temperature The Third Law of Thermodynamics